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Typical fracturing fluid (aka completion fluid or frac fluid) used for hydro-fracturing wells drilled in the Marcellus shale formation is approximately 99.5% water and proppant--usually sand. The remainder consists of chemicals such as surfactant additives and other substances that protect the well and optimize its performance. These are generally non-toxic and similar to those used in shampoos and swimming pools. The water, sand and chemicals are trucked in. A typical fresh water impoundment may hold 2 to 3 million gallons, but can run as high as 10 million.